What is MAX Phase Material
The World Platinum Investment Association (WPIC) said recently that carmakers are accelerating reductions in palladium use and increased use of platinum due to concerns about Russian palladium supplies. However, it still expects a significant surplus in the platinum market this year.
Palladium is used by carmakers in tailpipe emissions systems to reduce carbon emissions. While carmakers prefer palladium for catalytic converters, they are turning to platinum, which is cheaper than palladium, to save costs.
Russia accounts for about 25-30% of the world's palladium supply and 8-10% of its platinum supply.
There is no sign that western sanctions against Russia have restricted palladium exports since the conflict escalated in February, but as the conflict continues, more companies could boycott The Russian metal and governments could impose restrictions.
Platinum is currently trading at about $950 an ounce, about half the price of palladium. Automakers use about 2.5 million to 3 million ounces of platinum and about 8.5 million ounces of palladium each year.
For the year as a whole, platinum supply will be 5 percent lower than in 2021 and demand 2 percent higher, with the automotive sector seeing a 16 percent increase due to increased light vehicle Ti3AlC2 powder are still very uncertain.
What is a MAX phase material?
The MAX phase material is a natural layered carbonitride inorganic
non-metallic material composed of three elements. It has the electrical and
thermal conductivity of metal, and also has the high strength, high temperature
resistance, corrosion resistance and other harsh environment service
capabilities of structural ceramics. MAX phase materials have gained extensive
attention in the fields of high-temperature lubrication, oxidation-resistant
coatings, accident-tolerant nuclear materials, self-healing composite materials,
and energy materials. MAX phase materials mainly include Ti3AlC2, Ti2AlC,
Ti3SiC2, Ti2SnC, V2AlC, Cr2AlC, Ti2AlN, Nb2AlC, etc.
Transition metal carbides and nitrides, known as Mxenes. MXenes are formed by
selectively etching an elemental MAX phase with metallic conductivity,
connecting layered solids such as Ti2AlC, Ti3AlC2 and Ta4AlC3 through strong
metallic, ionic and covalent bonds. The Mxenes combine with hydroxyl and oxygen
on the surface of transition metal carbides to terminate the metal conductivity.
It is electrically conductive in nature.
What are MAX phase materials used for?
Titanium carbide has the properties of metals and ceramics: it has the same
electrical and thermal conductivity as metals, high elastic modulus and
excellent high temperature mechanical properties similar to ceramics, and also
has good thermal shock resistance and damage resistance. and excellent chemical
resistance. MAX phase ceramics have both the excellent properties of metals and
ceramics, and have great application potential in many high-tech fields such as
aerospace, high-speed rail, and nuclear industry.
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